FINNISH SPITZ CLUB OF AMERICA
Name and Objectives
Section 1. The name of the Club shall be the Finnish Spitz
Club of America, Inc. (FSCA).
Section 2. The objectives of the Club shall be:
To encourage and promote the breeding of quality
purebred Finnish Spitz, and to do all possible to bring their natural qualities
To educate members, prospective members, owners, and
judges regarding the Finnish Spitz.
To urge breeders to adhere to the standard of the breed
as approved by the American Kennel Club (AKC) as the only standard of excellence
by which Finnish Spitz shall be judged.
To do all in its power to protect and advance the
interests of the breed through a code of ethics, and sportsmanlike conduct at
matches, dog shows, obedience and rally trials, agility trials, tracking tests,
hunting tests, and other AKC-approved activities.
To conduct sanctioned matches, specialty shows,
obedience, rally and agility trials, hunting instinct tests, and other approved
events under the rules and regulations of the AKC.
Section 3. The Club shall be a not-for-profit organization.
No part of any profits or remainder or residue from dues or donations to
the club shall inure to the benefit of any member or individual.
Section 4. The
members of the Club shall adopt, and may, from time to time, revise the Bylaws
as may be required to carry out these objectives. The process for any such
revisions and adoptions shall be the procedure outlined in Article VII.
Eligibility. There shall be four
types of membership open to all persons who are in good standing with the Club
and the AKC and who subscribe to the purposes of this Club.
Section 2. Types of membership.
(a) Regular members must be individual persons who are
resident citizens of the United States, and who are 18 years and older. Regular
members enjoy all the privileges of the club including the right to vote, hold
office, sponsor members, and count in the determination of the quorum.
In addition, an applicant for regular membership must:
Presently own a pure-bred Finnish Spitz for at least one
(1) year; or
Have at least one years’ involvement actively exhibiting
a pure-bred dog in AKC shows or trials and have present or prior ownership of a
pure-bred Finnish Spitz.
Associate members, who do not meet the requirements of
regular members, must be residents of the United States and 18 years and older.
Associate members may not vote, hold office, sponsor memberships, or nominate
members and do not count in the determination of the quorum.
Associate members who met the requirements of regular membership may
apply for regular membership upon meeting the requirements.
Junior members, who are older than ten years and less
than 18 years old, must reside in the United States and must own, co-own, or
have an immediate family member who owns a Finnish Spitz. Junior members may not
vote or hold office, and do not count in the determination of the quorum.
Junior members may only sponsor junior memberships.
Junior members who have reached their eighteenth birthday automatically
convert to regular status upon submission to the Membership Chair an executed,
endorsed and signed membership application after their eighteenth birthday.
Foreign members are individuals who are not residents or
citizens of the United States. Foreign members may not vote, hold office,
sponsor memberships, or nominate members, and do not count in the determination
of the quorum.
Section 3. Dues.
Annual dues for each type of membership shall be set by
the Board of Directors. Annual dues shall be reviewed on a regular basis and
adjusted when appropriate. If the
Board of Directors does not adjust the dues by October, the previous year’s dues
shall be applicable.
During the month of November, the Treasurer or the
Newsletter Editor shall send to each member a statement of his/her dues for the
Dues are payable on or before the first day of January
of each year.
The membership dues shall not exceed $75.00 per year.
No members may vote whose dues are not paid for
the current year.
Election to membership.
Each applicant for membership shall apply on a form as
approved by the Board of Directors. The application shall:
Include agreements to abide by these constitution and
by-laws and the rules and regulations of the AKC.
State the name, address, occupation and any other
information of the applicant required by the Board of Directors.
Shall carry the
endorsement of one regular member in good
standing, not of the same household.
The prospective member shall submit dues payment for the
current year with the application. The dues payment will be returned if his/her
application is not accepted.
All applications shall be submitted to the Membership
Chair (or Secretary if there is no Membership Chair) who shall promptly forward
the attached dues to the Treasurer and copies of the application form to the
Newsletter Editor and the Board of Directors.
The name, address, and qualifications of each applicant,
together with the name and address of the sponsor, shall be published in the
FSCA newsletter, or mailed to all members within 60 days of receipt of the
application, whichever is sooner.
Any objection to an applicant for membership, together
with the reasons for such objections, shall be filed in writing with the
Membership Chair within 21 days after publication or the mailing which sets
forth the applicant’s name and qualifications.
If any objection is received by the Membership Chair
within the time specified above, he/she shall promptly transmit the objection to
the Board of Directors.
If no objection is received by the Membership Chair
within the time specified above, the application shall be presented to the Board
of Directors for vote at its next meeting or by written ballot within 30 days,
whichever is sooner.
Applicants may be elected at any meeting of the
Board of Directors or by written vote of the Board of Directors by mail.
Affirmative votes of 2/3 of the Board of Directors present at a meeting of the
Board of Directors or of 2/3 of the entire Board of Directors voting by mail,
shall be required to elect an applicant to membership.
The application of an individual who has not
received affirmation by the Board of Directors may be presented by a member at
the next Annual Meeting of the Club. The Club may elect this person by secret
written ballot. A favorable majority of the members present and voting is
required to approve an applicant.
Applicants for membership who have been rejected
by the club may not re-apply until six months after such rejection.
Termination of membership.
Membership may be terminated:
Any member in good standing may resign from the Club upon written notice
to the Secretary; but no member may resign when in debt to the Club.
Dues obligations are considered a debt to the Club and they become
incurred on the first day of each fiscal year.
A member will be considered as lapsed if a member’s dues remain unpaid after
February 1st. If dues remain unpaid
through February 28th, the membership is automatically terminated.
However, the Board of Directors may grant an additional 30 days of grace to such
delinquent members in meritorious cases.
In no case may a person be entitled to vote at any Club Meeting or on any
Club issue whose dues are unpaid as of the date of that meeting or ballot.
A membership may be terminated by expulsion as provided in article VI of
MEETINGS, VOTING, AND NOTICE
Annual Meeting. The Annual Meeting of the Club shall be held during the period
beginning September 1 and ending November 30 of each year at a place, date and
hour designated by the Board of Directors. Written notice of the Annual Meeting
shall be mailed by the Secretary (or Newsletter Editor) to each member at least
30 days before the date of the meeting. The quorum for the Annual Meeting shall
be 10% of the regular members who are in good standing, but no fewer than 15
regular members who are in good standing.
Special Club Meetings.
(a) Special club meetings
shall be called by the President and/or by a majority vote of the members of the
Board of Directors who are present at a meeting of the Board of Directors or who
vote by mail. Meetings shall also be called by the Secretary upon receipt of a
petition signed by 10% of the regular members of the club who are in good
standing or 10 regular members, whichever is less.
(b) The meeting shall be held at such place, date and hour as is
designated by the Board of Directors, but must be set within 30 days of receipt
of said petition.
(c) Written notice of the meeting shall be mailed by the Secretary (or
Newsletter Editor) at least 14 days and not more than 30 days before the
meeting. The notice of the meeting shall state the purpose of the meeting and no
other Club business may be transacted.
(d) The quorum for the meeting shall be 10% of the Regular members who
are in good standing, but no fewer than 15 Regular members who are in good
Board Meetings. Meetings of the
Board of Directors shall be held at such times and places as are designated by a
majority vote of the entire Board of Directors. All in-person Board of Directors
meetings, except those in executive session, shall be open to Club members.
Written notice of each such meeting shall be mailed by the Secretary (or
Newsletter Editor) to each member of the Board of Directors, and to the general
membership if an in-person meeting, at least 21 days before the date of the
meeting. The quorum for a Board of
Directors meeting shall be a majority of the voting members of the Board of
Special Board Meetings.
Special meetings of the Board of Directors may be called by the President and
may be called upon the written request of three members of the Board of
Directors. The purpose of the special meeting shall be stated in the call for
the meeting. Written notice of such a meeting shall be mailed by the Secretary
(or Newsletter Editor) at least five days and not more than 10 days prior to the
date of the meeting, or telegraphic notice for any meeting by telephone
conference shall be filed at least three days and not more than five days prior
to the date of the meeting. Any such
notice shall state the purpose of the meeting and no other Club business may be
transacted thereat. The quorum for
such a meeting shall be a majority of the Board of Directors.
Section 5. Voting.
Each regular member in good standing, whose dues are paid for the current
year, shall be entitled to one vote at any meeting of the Club at which he/she
is present. Proxy voting will not be
permitted at any Club meeting or election.
Section 6. Email and other electronic communication
Notification of Club meetings, dues notices, minutes, newsletters, and any other
communication to members and the Board of Directors may be made by email
providing that the member and/or board member has signed an authorization
agreeing to this method of communication.
The authorization which shall release the club from any liability should
the notification be received late or not received due to circumstances beyond
the Club’s control shall be maintained by the secretary.
Such authorization is revocable upon written notice to the Secretary.
The Board of Directors may conduct its business
by mail, telephone conference, faxes, email or other electronic transmissions
through the Secretary.
Section 7. Minutes of all member meetings and ballots and
all Board of Director meetings, including meetings by telephone conference or
electronic methods, shall be published in the next FSCA newsletter.
DIRECTORS AND OFFICERS
Board of Directors.
The board shall be comprised of the following officers:
President, Vice-president, Secretary, and Treasurer. It shall also consist of
three other persons.
All of the board shall be regular members in good
standing and shall serve until their successors are elected. In addition, board
members shall have the following limitations:
Immediate family members may not serve on the Board
during another family member’s term.
Must have been a member of the Club for at least three
Must have previously served as a FSCA committee member
General management of the Club’s affairs shall be
entrusted to the Board of Directors, including determination of time, place, and
other details of any event which the Club may sponsor or support.
Section 2. Term.
Officers shall have one-year terms.
Board members at large shall have rotating three-year terms with one seat
expiring each year.
Section 3 Term Limits. No one shall serve more than eight
consecutive years as a member of the board. Each officer, upon completing two
consecutive terms in his/her office, shall not be eligible for election as an
officer in that same position for two consecutive years. He/she may be eligible
for other board positions.
Section 4. Directors. Directors shall be elected for a
three-year term at the Annual Meeting as provided in Article IV. They shall
serve until their successors are elected. They shall be limited to a maximum of
two successive terms. These shall be rotating terms, with at least one seat
expiring each year. Any vacancy of a directorship prior to that election shall
be filled only to the time of that election.
Officers. The Club’s officers shall
serve in their respective capacities both with regard to the club and its
meetings and the board and it meetings.
The President shall preside at all meetings of the Club
and of the Board, and shall have the duties and powers normally appurtenant to
the office of President in addition to those particularly specified in these
The Vice-President shall have the duties and exercise
the powers of the President in case of the President’s death, absence, or
incapacity as determined by the Board of Directors.
The Secretary shall keep a record of all meetings of the
club and of the board, including votes or ballots by mail or other means, and of
all matters of which a record shall be ordered by the Club.
He/she shall have charge of the correspondence, notify members of
meetings, notify new members of their
election to membership, officers and directors of their election to office and
appointees of their appointments by the Board of Directors. The Secretary shall
also keep a current roll of the members of the club with their addresses,
telephone numbers, and email addresses, and carry out such other duties as are
prescribed in these Bylaws.
The Treasurer shall collect and receive all moneys due
or belonging to the Club. He/she
shall deposit the same in a bank designated by the Board of Directors, in the
name of the Club. The Treasurer’s
books shall always be open to inspection by the Board of Directors and he/she
shall report to them at every meeting the condition of the Club’s finances and
every item of receipt or payment not before reported. At the annual meeting
he/she shall render an account of all moneys received and expended during the
previous fiscal year. The Treasurer
shall also disburse funds necessary to discharge the liabilities of the Club.
Such disbursements shall in no event exceed a maximum limit set by Board policy
for which prior approval of the Board of Directors must be obtained before
payment can be made. The Treasurer shall be bonded if so directed by the Board
of Directors in an amount directed by the Board of Directors.
Vacancies. Any vacancies occurring
on the Board or among the offices during the year shall be filled for the
unexpired term by a majority vote of the remaining members of the Board at its
first regular meeting following the creation of such vacancy, or at a special
board meeting called for that purpose; except that a vacancy in the office of
President shall be filled automatically by the Vice-president, and the resulting
vacancy in the office of Vice-president shall be filled by the board.
Any Officer or Director who vacates a position shall, within 30 days,
turn over Club records and property in his/her possession to either his/her
successor or an individual named by the President. Failure to do so may result
in disciplinary action.
THE CLUB YEAR, ANNUAL MEETING, AND ELECTIONS
Section 1. Club
year. The Club’s fiscal year shall
begin on the 1st day of January and end on the 31st day of
December. The club’s official year shall begin September 1st and
shall end on August 31st. The newly elected Officers and Directors
shall take office on September 1st.
Each retiring Officer and Director shall turn over to his/her successor in
office all properties and records relating to that office within 30 days after
Section 2. Voting.
At the Annual Meeting, or at a special meeting of the
Club, voting shall be limited to those Regular members in good standing who are
The annual election of Officers, Director and AKC
Delegate, amendments to the Constitution and Bylaws, and changes to the breed
standard shall be decided by written ballot cast by mail. Voting by proxy shall
not be permitted.
The Board of Directors may decide to submit other
specific questions for decision of the members by written ballot cast by mail.
The Board of Directors shall be required to present to the membership for a vote
within 30 days any question submitted by a regular member with the endorsement
of five other regular members, no two of whom are from the same household.
The election of Officers and Director and AKC Delegate
shall be conducted by mail ballot.
Ballots to be valid must be received by August 15th by
the Secretary or an independent
professional registered parliamentarian appointed by the Board of Directors. If
the Secretary or a member of his/her household is a candidate for election with
opposition, the ballots shall be received by an independent professional
parliamentarian appointed by the Board of Directors. If an independent
professional registered parliamentarian is not used, the Board of Directors
shall appoint a teller committee of three people, no two of which may be in the
same family, to count the ballots. Members of the current Board of Directors,
candidates, and household members of the current Board of Directors or
candidates shall be ineligible as members of the teller committee.
Sealed ballots shall be opened and counted
by August 31st by the
teller committee or the designated parliamentarian. The person receiving the
largest number of votes for each position shall be declared elected. Those
elected shall take office on September 1st .
If any nominee is
unable to serve for any reason, this person shall not be elected. The vacancy
created shall be filled by the new Board of Directors in the manner provide by
Article III, Section 3.
In case of a tie, the Secretary shall send out a second
ballot by September 1st which shall only ballot the tied positions.
Positions without a tie shall take office on September 1st.
The second ballots must be returned to the Secretary or the designated
parliamentarian by September 30th and shall be opened and counted by
October 5th. This person shall report the results to the Board of Directors by
Section 4. Nominations and ballots.
A Nominating Committee shall be elected by the
membership at the Annual Meeting. Nominees for this committee must agree in
person at the Annual Meeting or in writing to serve on this committee prior to
being elected. Persons who agree in writing need not be present at the Annual
Meeting to be elected. The committee shall consist of three members and two
alternates, all members in good standing, none of whom shall be a member of the
current Board of Directors. It shall be geographically diverse. The members
shall name a chairman for the committee. The Nominating Committee may conduct
its business by mail or telephone. The nominating committee shall not select a
slate without first publishing to the membership the names of the committee
members to allow time for input.
The Nominating Committee shall nominate from among the
eligible members of the Club, one candidate for each office and for the expiring
position on the Board of Directors and the AKC Delegate. It shall procure the
written acceptance by mail of each nominee chosen. The committee shall consider
geographical representation of the membership on the Board of Directors to the
extent that it is practical to do so.
By May 1st the committee shall then submit its slate of
candidates to the Secretary. The Secretary or the newsletter editor shall mail
the list, including the full name of each candidate and the name of the state in
which he/she resides, to each member of the Club by May 15th.
Additional nominations of eligible members may be made
by written petition, signed by five regular members other than by the nominees,
addressed to the Secretary and be received
by the Secretary at his/her regular address on or before July 1st.
The additional nominee must also send to the Secretary’s regular address
their written acceptance of their willingness to be a candidate.
No person shall be a candidate for more than one
If no valid additional nominations for Officer, Board of
Directors, or AKC delegate positions are received by the Secretary on or before
July1st, the Nominating Committee’s slate shall be declared elected
on September 1st and no balloting will be required.
If one or more valid additional nominations are received
by the Secretary as provided in (d) of this Section, the Secretary shall mail to
each member in good standing on or before July 15th, a ballot. This
ballot shall list in alphabetical order all of the nominees for each position
along with the names of the states in which they live. With the ballot, the
Secretary shall include instruction for completing the ballot, a blank envelope,
and a return envelope marked “Ballot” addressed to the party designated by the
Board of Directors to receive the ballots and bearing the name of the member to
who it was sent. To ensure that ballots may remain secret, each voter, after
marking his/her ballot, shall seal it in the blank envelope, one ballot per
envelope, which in turn shall be placed in the second envelope addressed to the
Secretary or designated parliamentarian. The teller committee or designated
parliamentarian shall check the return against the list of members whose dues
are paid for the current year before opening the outer envelopes and removing
the blank envelopes. They shall certify the eligibility of the voters as well as
the results of the voting which shall be announced to the membership by
Section 1. Standing and Special Committees.
The President, with the approval of the Board of
Directors, may each year appoint standing committees to advance the work of the
Club in such matters as dog shows,
trials, trophies, annual awards, membership, and other areas which may well be
served by committees.
Special committees, with the exception of the two
committees in Section 2 of this Article, may also be appointed by the Board of
Directors to aid it on particular projects.
Such committees shall always be subject to the final
authority of the Board.
Section 2. The Nominating Committee and the AKC delegate.
These shall not be appointed by the President or the Board of Directors
but shall be selected as described below.
These shall have one-year terms.
The Nominating Committee shall be elected by general
membership at the Annual Meeting and governed by Article IV, Section 4.
The AKC Delegate shall be elected as provided in Article
IV. The AKC Delegate shall represent the Club at delegate meetings and shall
report at least quarterly to the Board of Directors.
Other Appointments. Following the
Annual Meeting, the Board of Directors shall appoint an editor of the
newsletter, a columnist for the AKC Gazette, and a columnist for any other
publication deemed by the Board to be appropriate. All such appointments shall
serve for the ensuing year.
Section 3. Term. All appointments terminate upon the annual
election. Any appointment may be terminated by a majority vote of the full Board
of Directors upon written notice to the appointee; and the Board of Directors
may appoint successors to those persons whose service has been terminated. Any
committee chair who vacates a position shall, within 30 days, turn over Club
records and property in his/her possession to either his/her successor or an
individual named by the President. Failure to do so may result in disciplinary
Section 1. American Kennel Club Suspension.
Any member who is suspended from privileges of the American Kennel Club
automatically shall be suspended from the privileges of this club for a like
Section 2. Charges. Any regular member may prefer charges
against a member for alleged misconduct prejudicial to the best interests of the
club or the breed. Written charges
with specifications must be filed in duplicate with the secretary together with
a deposit of $25 which shall be forfeited if such charges are not sustained by
the board or a special committee following a hearing.
The Secretary shall promptly send a copy of the charges to each member of
the board within two weeks of receipt or present them at a Board of Directors
meeting, whichever is sooner. The Board of Directors shall first consider
whether the actions alleged in the charges, if proven, might constitute conduct
prejudicial to the best interests of the Club or the breed.
If the board considers the charges do not allege conduct which would be
prejudicial to the best interests of the Club or the breed, it may refuse to
entertain jurisdiction. If the Board
of Directors entertains jurisdiction of the charges, it shall fix a date of a
hearing by the board or the special committee not less than three weeks and not
more than six weeks thereafter. Any
special committee shall consist of not fewer than three members of the board.
The Secretary shall promptly send one copy of the charges to the accused member
by certified mail return receipt requested together with a notice of the hearing
and an assurance that the defendant may personally appear in his own defense and
bring witnesses if he/she wishes.
Board hearing. Both the
complainant(s) and the defendant(s) shall have the right to counsel at their own
expense. Should the charges be sustained, after hearing all the evidence and
testimony presented by complainant and defendant, the Board of Directors or
special committee may, by a majority vote of those present, reprimand or suspend
the defendant from all privileges of the club for not more than six months from
the date of the hearing. And, if it
deems suspension insufficient, it may also recommend to the membership that the
penalty be expulsion. In such case, the suspension shall not restrict the
defendant’s right to appear before his fellow-members at the ensuing club
meeting which considers the recommendation of the Board of Directors or special
committee. Immediately after the
Board of Directors or special committee has reached a decision, its findings
shall be put in written form and filed with the Secretary.
The Secretary, in turn, shall notify each of the parties of the Board of
Directors’ decision and penalty, if any.
Section 4. Expulsion.
Expulsion of a member from the club may be accomplished only at the
Annual Meeting of the Club following a hearing and upon the recommendation of
the Board of Directors or special committee as provided in Section 3 of this
Article. The defendant shall have the privilege of appearing in his/her own
behalf, though no evidence shall be taken at the meeting.
The President shall read the charges, the
findings and recommendations, and shall invite the defendant, if present, to
speak in his/her own behalf if he/she wishes.
The membership shall then vote by secret written ballot on the proposed
expulsion. A 2/3 vote of those
present and voting at the meeting shall be necessary for expulsion.
If expulsion is not voted, the Board of Director’s suspension shall
Section 5. Reassignment of Duties. If the President is the
subject of the charges or disciplinary action, the Vice President shall perform
the duties of the President as described in this article. If any other Officer
or Director is the subject of the charges or disciplinary action, the remainder
of the Board of Directors shall select by majority vote another Board Member to
fulfill the duties of said Officer or Director until the charges are either
dismissed or the time of the disciplinary action is completed.
Section 6. Rights Under Suspension. A member under
suspension shall receive all Club information and notices which are sent to
members in good standing. This includes dues notices and the Club newsletter, as
well as other pertinent communications as defined by the Board of Directors.
However, in no manner may the suspended member serve on the board, serve
on a committee, vote, sponsor a member, or in any way participate in the
operation of the Club.
Section 1. Amendments to the Constitution and Bylaws and to
the breed standard may be proposed by the board of directors or by written
petition addressed to the Secretary signed by twenty percent of the membership
in good standing. Amendments
proposed by such petition shall be promptly considered by the Board of Directors
and must be submitted to the members with recommendations of the board by the
Secretary for a vote within three months of the date when the petition was
received by the Secretary.
Section 2. The
Constitution and Bylaws may be amended at any time and the breed standard may be amended no more than once every five
A copy of the proposed amendment has been published in
the newsletter at least thirty days before mail ballots are sent;
amendments are mailed by the Secretary to each regular member in good standing
on the date of mailing.
The proposed amendments shall be accompanied by a ballot
on which the member may indicate his/her choice for or against the action to be
taken. Dual-envelope procedures described in Article IV, Section 4(g) shall be
followed in handling such ballots, to assure secrecy of the vote. Ballots shall
be returned within thirty days to be valid and addressed to the Secretary or
designated professional registered
The quorum for this mail ballot shall be 10% of the
regular members who are in good standing, but no fewer than 15 regular members
who are in good standing.
The favorable vote of 2/3 of the regular members in good
standing who return valid ballots within the time limit shall be required to
effect any such amendment.
Section 3. No amendment to the Constitution and Bylaws or
to the breed standard that is adopted by the Club shall become effective until
it has been approved by the Board of Directors of the American Kennel Club.
The club may be dissolved at any time by written consent of
not less than 2/3 of the regular members.
In the event of the dissolution of the Club, other than for purpose of
reorganization as permitted by the laws of the state of incorporation, whether
voluntary or involuntary or by the operation of law, none of the property of the
Club, nor any proceeds thereof, nor any assets of the Club, shall be distributed
to any members of the Club. After payment of the debts of the Club, its property
and assets shall be given to one or more charitable organizations for the
benefit of dogs. The Board of Directors shall select the charitable
organizations to receive the property and assets.
ORDER OF BUSINESS
Section 1. At meetings of the Club, the order of business,
so far as the character and nature of the meeting may permit, there shall be as
Minutes of previous meeting
Report of President
Report of Secretary
Report of Treasurer
Report of Committees
Report of the Board of Directors
Selection of Nominating Committee
Introduction of Officers and
Director (at annual meeting)
New business (including appeals of Board of Directors decisions which may
involve but are not limited to appeals of decisions regarding election of new
Section 2. At
the meetings of the Board of Directors, the order of business unless otherwise
directed by a majority vote of those present, shall be as follows:
Reading of the minutes of the previous meeting
Report of the Secretary
Report of the Treasurer
Reports of Committees
The rules contained in the current edition of Robert’s
Rules of Order Newly Revised shall govern the Club in all cases to which they
are applicable and in which they are not inconsistent with these Bylaws and any
special rules of order the Club may adopt.
Adopted as the official Constitution and Bylaws of the
Finnish Spitz Club of America, Inc. on April 20, 1975.
Revised August 1, 1988. Revised November 15, 1989. Revised
June 1, 1991. Revised May 1, 1995. Revised June 2009. (Approved by AKC November 2009)